So I am doing some calculations for some Turbolasers, yeah, will elaborate later
Orbital Shipyard CC-24's Destruction
This comes from Lando Parts I and II, which were released July 8, 2015 and August 12, 2015 respectively.
So this space station, Orbital Shipyard CC-24 was destroyed by three Turbolaser bolts. So first we must measure how big it is. There is one scan which gives a good framed shot of how large the station is compared to something measurable.
We first must get the size of a yacht which scales to the station. We can use this panel
I measured the pixel size of the ship and the piece of the shipyard I am comparing (The cylindrical part) preemptively.
This ship, a yacht, is 406x107 pixels, or 419.8631 pixels
And the cylindrical part of the station is 67x306 pixels, or 313.2491 pixels
Now we can get the size of the yacht from this image here
The star destroyer, which is 1600 meters, is 292x581 pixels, or 650.25 pixels
The yacht is 54x80 pixels, or 96.519428 pixels, and if 1600 meters = 650.25 pixels, then 96.519428 pixels would equal 237.49494 meters.
Now going back to the image earlier, the ship was 419.8631 pixels which equals 237.49494 meters and the cylindrical part was 313.2491 pixels which would equal 177.188889 meters
In this image that cylindrical part is 15x75 pixels, or 76.4852927 pixels, which would equal 177.188889 meters. One of the “spokes” on the “wheel” in the structure is 108x22 pixels, or 255.3353493 meters. So given that, now we can go back to the explosion.
The Beam is 22x89 pixels, or 91.6787871 pixels, which we established as 255.3353493 meters
Explosion is 265 pixels, which would pixel scale to 738.0536949 meters, meaning the radius 369.02684745 meters
This explosion is more rounded so I will use fireball as a high end
- 5 psi overpressure (Low End) = 520 tons of tnt
- 20 psi overpressure (Middle End) = 5 kilotons of tnt
- Fireball (High End) = 46 kilotons of tnt
But also, 3 turbolasers fired to do this, so divide by three:
- 5 psi overpressure (Low End) = 173.333 tons of tnt
- 20 psi overpressure (Middle End) = 1.6667 kilotons of tnt
- Fireball (High End) = 15.333 kilotons of tnt
Personally I think this calculation is partially unusable because there is the variable of the space-station itself blowing up adding to the explosion which throws a wrench into the analysis
Turbolasers “Slagging” Cities
Hazram Namir, the main protagonist of Battlefront: Twilight Company (November 3, 2015), has witnessed an ISD slag a city:
A fleet of Star Destroyers? Namir had seen the massive ships before - great, wedge-shaped dreadnoughts that dwarfed the Thunderstrike - but never more than one at a time. He'd witnessed a single Star Destroyer bombard a city into a crater of steaming sludge; seen skyscrapers melt and stone burn. One Star Destroyer had been reason enough for Twilight to abandon a planet.
Hazram Namir, who comes from an underdeveloped Outer Rim planet, begins to grasp the true scale of the galaxy and the war he's now part of and recalls the city melting weapons of star destroyers:
Private Hazram Namir had been in his bunk disassembling and reassembling a DLT-20A blaster rifle when word about Alderaan came down. It hadn't meant anything to him. Only the fact that Howl had announced it over the Thunderstrike's intercom indicated the planet's destruction was anything out of the ordinary. In the two months since Namir had joined Twilight Company, he'd seen weaponry that could melt gleaming cities into slag, fought beside more species than he could name, heard stories of a Galactic Empire that held millions of stars in its grip. If he'd been told that planets were a common casualty of war, he'd have believed it without a second thought.
I should note that this is from a bombardment, so this is not just one shot. I cannot quantify how many shots are in this “bombardment,” so I will just see the energy needed to melt a city.
I will first take the mass of manhattan
This conservative estimate pegs Manhattan at 113,587,210,581.2 kilograms
Now, Manhattan is 87 square kilometers in area, and New York City is 34,490 square kilometers overall. It is a huge city, I will assume that’s the total area destroyed. 34,490 square kilometers / 87 square kilometers = 396.436782
So 396.436782 * 113,587,210,581.2 kilograms gives me 45,030,148,239,167.2776984 kilograms.
As a high ball, I will assume a heat capacity of titanium for the entire city, as the titanium too was slagged going by the quote. Again, this is a highball because this feat really isn’t quantifiable.
Melting point of steel is 1,668°C degrees celsius, average temperature is 30 degrees celsius, so a temperature change of 1638°C. Heat capacity of steel is 523 joules per kilogram. The latent heat is 419 kilojoules per kilogram.
I will plug it into this formula:
Plugging it in, I get the heat capacity component to be 9.2199228519695 gigatons of tnt
Now doing the latent heat part, 45,030,148,239,167.2776984 kilograms * 419 kilojoules per kilogram = 4.5094723 gigatons of tnt 4.5094723 gigatons of tnt + 9.2199228519695 gigatons of tnt = 13.7293951519695 gigatons of tnt
The thermal energy makes up 35% of the nuclear yield, so the total yield is 39.226843291341428571428571428571 gigatons of tnt
This…. Is a ludicrous highball for the following reasons:
- I inverse square law’d the mass of Manhattan to the total metro area of New York City, so this total mass is ridiculously high
- I assumed the whole city was magically made of titanium, which is also a highball
- This is from a bombardment of Turbolasers, not just one
This is from Aftermath: Life Debt (July 12, 2016):
Everything shakes and rumbles. Kashyyyk is caught in the throes of tectonic spasms.
~ Aftermath: Life Debt
And here is the orignal calculation
So in this blog, Soldier Blue uses a magnitude rating of 6 for the earthquake, as per this discussion:
The problem comes that they assume everyone is experiencing magnitude 6 quakes at all points of the planet, which is not true as seen from this scan.
So going by this, the earthquakes were just light rumbles from a distance. I will highball this and assume this means they are bombarding the other half of the planet. Kashyyyk is 12765 kilometers in diameter, so it's radius is 6382.5 kilometers. So the half circumference is 20,051.215 kilometers.
I should preemptively note that this took time, maybe hours. Given that, it is likely unquantifiable. Furthermore, too high of a magnitude would not make sense, as Kashyyyk was fully habitable even after the Empire’s bombardment, and I highly doubt the ISDs just stood in one position causing shockwaves across the planet, and it would make more sense if they moved around the planet to tactically glass it. So this is a massive highball, and I dislike that Vs Battles Wiki is assuming they literally did it with one barrage at one point. It just doesn’t make sense and it contradicts the story. Furthermore, as per the original calculation, Kashyyyk endured over a petaton of TNT from the bombardment. That would make it 10 times more powerful than the Chicxulub Impact and would leave Kashyyyk a barren traumatized planet not too different than Earth after the Permian and Cretacous extinction events, and I don’t buy Kashyyyk endured that much devastation because Chewbaca is seen living a comfortable life on Kashyyyk only a few years after this bombardment happened. This is not simply an outlier in terms of feats, this feat doesn’t logically make sense given how the plot goes. But I digress
I will use three methods to find the yield.
Number of shots from a barrage (From Soldier Blue)
The Imperial I-class boasts of the following heavy armaments:
60 XX-9 heavy turbolasers
2 quad heavy turbolsers
6 dual heavy turbolasers
In the upgraded Imperial I-class and Imperial II-class, those 6 dual heavy main turrets would be replaced with eight octuple barbette batteries.
Therefore, the total number of HTL barrels we’re looking at is:
= (60*2) + (2*8) + (8*8) = 200
So we will need to divide the final yield by this number
The original calculation assumed a uniform mercalli/richter 6 rating, but from a distance, which as I stated I will highball to be, 20,051.215 kilometers, the earthquakes feel like what sounds like magnitude 3 to 4.
I need to use the formula: Magnitude at a Distance + 6.399 + 1.66×log((Radius/110)×((2×π)/360))
6.399 + 1.66×log((20,051.215111537/110)×((2×π)/360)) = 7.73306792
- Low End = 3 + 7.73306792 = 10.73306792
- High End = 4 + 7.73306792 = 11.73306792
- Low End (Magnitude 10.73306792): 189.6750487 gigatons of tnt
- High End (Magnitude 11.73306792): 5.998051691 teratons of tnt
Now divide by 3 for the number of ships and then 200, and you get the final number:
- Low End (Magnitude 10.73306792): 316.125081 megatons of tnt (7-A)
- High End (Magnitude 11.73306792): 9.996752833333 gigatons of tnt (6-C)
One can use the formula
M = 0.68*I + 1.39*log(h) -1.4
Kashyyyk is 12,765 kilometers in diameter, I will use that as the focal depth as that means the shockwaves would reach the other side of it
I represents intensity
I will try as a low end a 6, then a mid end of 7, and a high end of 12
M = 0.68*12 + 1.39*log(12,765) -1.4
- Assuming I is rated at 6 = 8.3873689386
- Assuming I is rated at 7 = 9.0673689386
I will use Total "Seismic Moment Energy:"
- Magnitude 8.3873689386 = 1.123212 teratons of tnt
- Magnitude 9.0673689386 = 11.7614723 teratons of tnt
Now, 3 ships did this, so:
- Low End Shields of Ships: 374.404 gigatons of tnt
- High End Shields of Ships: 3.92049077 teratons of tnt
And since both did 200 shots:
- Low End Turbolaser Yield: 1.87202 gigatons of tnt
- High End Turbolaser Yield: 19.60245385 gigatons of tnt
- Shear Modulus of Crust = 32 GPa
- Kashyyyk Diameter = 12,765 km
- Kashyyyk Radius = 3686.67 kilometers
Area = 4π(6382.5 kilometers)^2 = 511,907,522 square km
This is most similar to a Mercalli rating of 6 or 7, which is equivalent to the earthquake magnitude 5-6
- Magnitude 5 Fault Slip Length = 45 millimeters
- Magnitude 5.5 Fault Slip Length = 11 centimeters
- Magnitude 6 Fault Slip length = 29 centimeters
I got to use this formula:
Moment = Shear Modulus x Fault Slip Length x Fault Area
- 45 millimeters * 511,907,522 square km * 32 GPa = 176.182321 teratons of tnt
- 11 centimeters * 511,907,522 square km * 32 GPa = 430.667896 teratons of tnt
- 29 centimeters * 511,907,522 square km * 32 GPa = 1.13539718 petatons of tnt
Going by the shields:
- Low End Shields of Ships: 58.7274403 teratons of tnt
- Mid End Shields of Ships: 143.555965 teratons of tnt
- High End Shields of Ships: 378.4657267 teratons of tnt
Now dividing by 200 shots:
- Low End Turbolaser Yield: 293.6372015 gigatons of tnt
- Mid End Turbolaser Yield: 717.779825 gigatons of tnt
- High End Turbolaser Yield: 1.8923286335 teratons of tnt
I honestly doubt the total yield is even CLOSE to petatons like being suggested. That is absolutely asinine. For the record, going by SD.net’s nuclear calculator, that would create a total air blast radius around 2000 kilometers larger than the planet itself. And as I noted, using this method leads to numbers just plain inconsistent to what happens to Kashyyyk. So in my opinion... Yeah.... Don't use this calculation method, it's really inflated and doesn't make sense, plus it's based on seismic moment energy which we shouldn't use for unnaturale events such as this.
Through the viewport, Eli watched the sky light up as the brilliant green bolts hammered their way toward the planet below.
But not to the island itself. As Admiral Durril and the Judicator had so painfully demonstrated, the insurgents' defenses were more than adequate to fend off any orbital attack.
But Scrim was an island...and the ocean immediately off its shore was not under the protection of that shield.
"Direct hit on Target One coordinates," a voice came from one of the 96th's two frigates, flying high observation over the battle zone. "Water crater - implosion-waves heading outward-"
"Impact!" a voice shouted from the second frigate. "Tsunami-scale wave has slammed into the western shoreline."
"Target Two: Fire," Thrawn ordered. "Damage at Target One?"
"Unclear, Admiral," the second frigate's observer said. The man was trying to stay calm and professional, but Eli could hear the awe creeping into his voice. "But the tsunami made a direct hit on the western ion cannon emplacement."
"Report on Target Two," the first frigate's observer cut in. "Turbolaser emplacement also hit. Looks even more swamped than Target One - the ground must be level or even bowl-shaped there."
"Alternate fire," Thrawn said. "Targets One and Two."
"Shield retracting," the Flensor reported. "Turbolaser clear to fire-"
"Second tsunami has hit Target Two," the first observer called.
"Second tsunami on Target One," the second added. "Western ion cannon is awash. Turbolaser-" He broke off. "Explosion at turbolaser emplacement, Admiral. Looks like the water shorted the capacitors. I'd say the weapon is out of action."
"Comm, open transmission," Thrawn ordered. "Scrim Island, this is Admiral Thrawn aboard the ISD Chimaera. Lower your shield and surrender, or we will continue to inundate your heavy weapons and shore defenses until they have been destroyed and those operating them killed. Repeat: Lower your shield and surrender or be destroyed."
There was no response. "Do we continue firing, Admiral?" Faro asked. "Alternate fire between Targets One and Three," Thrawn said. "Alert the assault boats for imminent action."
Another burst of turbolaser fire sizzled from the Chimaera into the now seething ocean. "Tsunamis on Targets One and Three," the first observer reported. "Looks like a fire has started in the area around Target Two."
~Star Wars: Thrawn
Okay, so this feat exists. So to do this I will base the energy off the seismic energy needed to start tsunamis. No proof of tectonic action in the feat; it’s just a crater impact. So I will just use the normal seismic energy, not the seismic moment energy.
As a low end (Somehow), I will use a 7.8 for the 1958 Lituya Earthquake, which generated the largest tsunami in modern history:
The mid end will be a magnitude 9, based on this article:
"A subduction quake acting alone to generate waves of comparable size would have needed to have a magnitude of nearly nine."
The high end will be magnitude 9.3, based on the Japanese 2011 Earthquake
- Low End (Magnitude 7.8): 7.558025 megatons of tnt (7-B)
- Mid End (Magnitude 9): 476.8791384 megatons of tnt (7-A)
- High End (Magnitude 9.3): 1.3440280239 gigatons of tnt (High 7-A)
Resurgance Star Destroyer one-shots Arratu
This happens in the novel Phasma (September 1, 2017). Individual bolts from the turbolasers of the Finalizer, a Resurgent-class star destroyer, contain power enough to obliterate a range of cliffs and a fairly large city:
She didn’t have names for what these weapons were, blaster bolts so big they could rain down from space, but she must’ve known instantly what they would do.
The first bolt slammed into the Scyre, and she watched the colors change, the black cliffs disappearing into the sea and great white plumes shooting up. The next bolt hit Arratu, leaving a black smudge across the gray sand where vibrant green had once been.
I must note that Arratu is a fairly large city for the standards of Parnassos, which is not too high. Per Wookiepedia
“Parnassos was a desolate planet located in the galaxy that was the homeworld of Phasma. Formerly lush and green, Parnassos had been colonized by the Con Star Mining Corporation. Following a nuclear disaster, Con Star abandoned Parnassos and abandoned the colonists, who were forced to eke out a perilous existence on the environmentally-ruined world.”
This was a desolate post-apocalyptic world, and Arratu is an outlier among it:
“Meanwhile, Arratu Station became a lush, green city inhabited by a wealthy elite and an impoverished commoner class. The city's rulers, known as Arratu staged gladiatorial fights in order to keep the masses entertained.”
Given the whole nature of this city, and the general desolation of Parnassos, I highly doubt Arratu would be all too big for modern Earth standards. Now, both Ancient Rome and Constantinople, two extremely large cities for ancient time standards which also sound similar to Ancient Roman customs with gladiatorial fights and breads and circuses, sound like good benchmarks. Rome up to its Aurelian Walls and Constantinople up to its Theodosian Walls are both 14 square kilometers.
Going by nukemap, that only requires 140.6 megatons of tnt for 20 psi overpressure, which would cause the near total fatalities and destruction described above.
The thermal energy makes up 35% of the nuclear yield, so the total yield is 401.71428571428571428571428571429 megatons of tnt
A turbolaser destroys a mountain
Star Wars Adventures 2, Tales from Wild Space: The Flat Mountain of Yavin (September 20, 2017)
To calc it, I will use this panel
I highly doubt it was vaporization; vaporizing the mountain would have created an overpressure eruption that would be exceedingy larger. This doesn't even have to deal with the Turbolasers, whose explosive radius could be moderated and dialed. The mere chain reaction of creating enough energy to have a vaporization value this high would be catastrophic, and would destroy the whole region. It would be much safer and more logical to assume it was pulverization. A nuclear explosion equalling hundreds of megatons of TNT pulverizing rock is still going to create the same effects seen in the panel, even still with a lot of smoke and steam. So it is more viable. I will do both, just in case however.
Mountain Height 102 pixels = 3980 meters
Cap Diameter 85 pixels = 3316.67 meters
Cap Height = 43 pixels = 1677.843 meters
= 4.831972701 km^3
Assuming Pulverization: 4.831972701 km^3 * 214.35 joules per cubic cm
= 247.546211 megatons of tnt
Assuming Vaporization: 4.831972701 km^3 * 25700 joules per cubic cm
= 29.6801382 gigatons of tnt
Thermal energy makes up 35% of the total blast, so the total yield is 707.27489 megatons of tnt to 84.8004 gigatons of tnt
Method 1a is being upmost generous, as that is the tallest mountain not just in Guatemala, but in Central America, and the region this scene takes place in, the Massassi Site of Yavin 4, is based in (and even filmed within) Tikal, within the Petén department. This region is not too elevated, and the highest elevation is a point called Cerro Pyramide according to this site
I will do Cerro Pyramide, which is 642 meters
102 pixels = 642 meters
85 pixels = 535 meters
43 pixels = 270.647 meters
= 20,280,535 cubic meters
Assuming Pulverization: 20,280,535 cubic meters * 214.35 joules per cubic cm
= 1.03898965 megatons of tnt
Assuming Vaporization: 20,280,535 cubic meters * 25700 joules per cubic cm
= 124.57212 megatons of tnt
And given that thermal energy makes 35% of the total energy, 2.969 megatons of tnt to 355.92 megatons of tnt
I will base the energy of destroying the mountain off the size of the explosion itself. I will then test it to see if it really could destroy the mountain in terms of joule per volume unit.
The good news for the pixel scaling is that due to the three scans being effectively the same in angle and pixel size, I just need to find the size of the explosion and scale from a previous number
Explosion Radius = 77 pixels = 484.64705882352941176470588235294 meters to 3004.5128235294117647058823529412 meters
As I noted prior, it isn't a fireball as a fireball isn'y any random thing you choose. I will use the 5/20 psi airblast and thermal radius benchmarks:
- Thermal radius: 890 tons of tnt
- 5 psi overpressure: ~1.18 kilotons of tnt
- 20 psi overpressure: ~11 kilotons of tnt
- Thermal radius: 55.2 kilotons of tnt
- 5 psi overpressure: ~282 kilotons of tnt
- 20 psi overpressure: ~4.45 megatons of tnt
These results are much lower, to say the least. However, an explosive overpressure of 5 psi and 20 psi is 34,473.8 to 137,895 pascals respectively, which should be more than enough pressure to vaporize the rock.
The bombing of Mon Calamar
I will base it on this calculation, but I will not use the fireball for the basis.
This feat happens in the Canon comic Darth Vader: Dark Lord of the Sith, Issue 17.
This, unlike what is stated by Vs Battles Wiki, does not show a fireball. The definition of a nuclear fireball roughly is “the maximum explosion radius beyond which point the energy is no longer in the form of a proper sphere,” and they explode out violently before creating the uncontrollable cloudy airblast. According to this
The airblast, blast wave, or airburst is defined as “A fraction of a second after a nuclear explosion, the heat from the fireball causes a high-pressure wave to develop and move outward producing the blast effect. The front of the blast wave, i.e., the shock front, travels rapidly away from the fireball, a moving wall of highly compressed air. “ The explosion seen in the comic better follows the description of the nuclear blast wave far better than a fireball. As it is, interpreting these airblasts to be fireballs artificially inflate calculations. So I will do this:
- Low End - Thermal Radiation Radius
- Mid End - Widespread Destruction
- High End - Near Total Fatalities
Now to the calculation
I shall use spherical cap method for this.
It is kinda hard to see the lines here, but here’s the gist:
Chord length = 1832 pixels Height = 80 pixels
Total Radius = 5284 pixels = 5515 kilometers Chord length = 1912.08933 kilometers
Now, Antonifer suggested I make the explosion smaller in radius, but first I will use the higher end approximation assuming the whole explosion can be used:
Higher End Assumption
Explosion Airblast = 618 pixels = 645.0170326 km Blast wave Radius = 322.5085163 km
Plugging them into here:
- Low End (Thermal Radiation Radius): 3.2833 gigatons of tnt
- Mid End (Widespread Destruction): 99.899 gigatons of tnt
- High End (Near Total Fatalities): 189.18 gigatons of tnt
Three turbolaser blasts did this, so:
- Low End (Thermal Radiation Radius): 1.09443 gigatons of tnt
- Mid End (Widespread Destruction): 33.2997 gigatons of tnt
- High End (Near Total Fatalities): 63.06 gigatons of tnt
Lower End Assumption
K, the explosion radius is 206 pixels, making a radius of 103 pixels or 107.50283877 kilometers
- Low End (Thermal Radiation Radius): 225 megatons of tnt
- Mid End (Widespread Destruction): 3.58 gigatons of tnt
- High End (Near Total Fatalities): 67.7 gigatons of tnt
Three turbolaser blasts did this, so:
- Low End (Thermal Radiation Radius): 75 megatons of tnt
- Mid End (Widespread Destruction): 1.19333 gigatons of tnt
- High End (Near Total Fatalities): 22.56667 gigatons of tnt
Final Tally and Conclusions
- Bombing of Mon Calamar
- Low End: 1.09443 gigatons of tnt
- Mid End: 33.2997 gigatons of tnt
- High End: 63.06 gigatons of tnt
- Destroying a mountain
- Using low end mountain
- Pulverization: 2.969 megatons of tnt
- Vaporization: 355.92 megatons of tnt
- Using high end mountain
- Pulverization: 707.27489 megatons of tnt
- Vaporization: 84.8004 gigatons of tnt
- Using low end mountain
- Destruction of Arratu: 401.71428571428571428571428571429 megatons of tnt
- Slagging a City: >>39.226843291341428571428571428571 gigatons of tnt
- Shaking Kashyyyk
- First Method
- Low End: 1.87202 gigatons of tnt
- High End: 19.60245385 gigatons of tnt
- Second Method
- Low End: 293.6372015 gigatons of tnt
- Mid End: 717.779825 gigatons of tnt
- High End: 1.8923286335 teratons of tnt
- First Method
Going by this, I think turbolasers should be 6-C, maybe high 6-C for heavy turbolasers, but not any higher. The Kashyyyk Feat is way too vague with respect to its timeframe and if using the second method, results in a number for the overall barrage comparable to even far more damaging than the Chicxulub Impact which wiped out the dinosaurs and left Earth in a nuclear winter. Kashyyyk simply did not sustain nearly that level of damage, and plus, we don't know the time frame. It could be way more than simply 200 shots. Lastly, the second method leads to results FAR higher than any other feat I have seen. There are only two comparable feats I can find:
- In the Force Awakens ICS book, it says this:
Massive turbolaser turrets and heavy ion cannons dot the flanks of the Finalizer’s upper hull, with an additional brace of forward batteries set on either side of the bow. Designed for orbital assaults and slugging matches with enemy capital ships, these turbolasers can overload shields, punch through thick armour, and reduce planetary surfaces to molten slag.
- And from the Last Jedi Novelization, it says that >1000 magno-charges can crack the crust of a planet
The former has no proper timeframe and doesn't say if this means through a barrage or not. The latter is also relatively vague as to what it means a "crust of a planet," and to what level and scale it means this. Does this literally mean taking the shear strength of the crust (32 GPa), the area of the planet (let's say 510 million km^2 like Earth)and the depth of the crust (20 km or so)? That would result in high teraton-petaton yields per missile, and I highly doubt (some of the absolutley worst) bombers could do that, that's a hillarious outlier. Or does it mean like on a lower scale than that?
And lastly, there are quotes that they can "lay waste to continents," such as this quote from Battlefront: Twilight Company
Now this is referring to Star Destroyers in general, no turbolasers, which makes it sound more like over time they can do this much damage. So with a rapid barrage of turbolasers ove ran unspecified amount of time they can lay waste, not destroy, just dust off continents. That is unquantifiable and even the Covenant whose ships are only 7-C to 7-A can "lay waste" to continents over time.
This is only looking at the feats and blogs having been given by Soldier Blue. If there are more explicitly triple digit gigaton to single/double digit teraton level feats that perhaps are less vague than the Kashyyyk feat, I am all open to calculating and confirmign them.